A figure like Mr. Ruhollah Mousavi Khomeini, who cannot be read merely as a jurisprudential reference for Shiite Muslims, or as a leader of the revolution in Iran; His sacred admirers, and his demonized haters, view him as one of the most influential leaders who changed the history of the Middle East region, and the violent conflicts and wars that it witnessed. His ideas also pushed towards structural shifts in the role of religious scholars, and contributed to the “revolution of jurisprudence,” removing it from the space of the provisions of prayer, fasting and traditional worship, to the spaces of the “religious state” and related thorny issues; These concepts were directly reflected on the foreign relations of the “Islamic Republic” regime, which was established in Iran after the 1979 revolution, and made those relations of a tense nature with the neighboring Arab countries, which increased the level of the nascent state’s raising of the slogan “exporting the revolution”, and the subsequent interference in the affairs of the country. her interior.
Also, the jurisprudential influence of Khomeini on internal issues in Iran cannot be ignored, which changed the face of the monarchy with a liberal, modernizing character influenced by Western ideas.
Whereas, supporters of the revolution sought to establish borders, Islamize society, and religious parties, in order to implement Sharia and its laws on people, and to establish voluntary groups of revolutionary youth that tried to impose their orientations by force on Iranians, specifically women, which made them subject to several harassment and attacks, which in its harshest expressions amounted to the throwing of “acid”. On the veiled girls!
Supreme Leader Ayatollah Khamenei
Islamists or Shiites were not the only ones who interacted with the “Islamic Revolution” in 1979. There are many left-wing Arab and even Western intellectuals who wrote about this event; Here, names such as: Michel Foucault, Hazem Saghieh, and Adonis stand out. It was a sweeping emotional moment, especially since what delighted a large sector was not the victory of Khomeini himself, but rather the fall of Shah Muhammad Reza Pahlavi’s regime, which they viewed as a unilateral and undemocratic regime!
Al-Sayyid Khomeini, the religious authority, to whom a section of Shiite Muslims in Iran and abroad is credited by tradition, despite the existence of widely popular references such as Imam Abu al-Qasim al-Khoei, who is called “Professor of the Jurists.” Khomeini was able to establish a new curriculum in the seminary, in contrast to The historical vision of the Iraqi “Najaf” seminary, and pushing the “Qom” seminary in Iran towards political engagement in a way that made the clerics directly involved in the parties, the struggle and the taking of arms on the battlefronts; It was a violent demolition of a classical path that extended to the era of the occultation of Imam Muhammad ibn al-Hasan al-Mahdi, 260 AH and until 1979. The biography of the legislator and the great Imami Shi’a jurists was conducted on it, before Khomeini worked on his own path, which he looked at in his lectures during his stay in the city of The Iraqi Najaf, then those lessons were printed in the book “Islamic Government”, which is based on the absolute “guardianship of the jurist”, which is the state that derives its powers from the “wilayat of the infallible Imam”, according to the Khomeinist vision, as the just, courageous jurist who gathers all the conditions, is the deputy of the Imam, and therefore He has all of his powers, except for what is limited to “infallibility”.
The difference of scholars
The “guardianship of the jurist” was at the time a subject of great controversy, as most of the Ja’afari jurists believed in “restricted guardianship” over minors and orphans and in matters of “hisba” within narrow limits stipulated in the fatwa books, and even those who believed in a guardianship of the jurist are broader than that, it did not rise to be in the same The revolutionary character that Khomeini brought.
Some considered this a form of jurisprudence that transcends the text, which was carried out for political goals with the aim of establishing religious rule and for the necessities of the stage. Therefore, critics of the “absolute guardianship of the jurist” did not find the evidence presented by Ayatollah Khomeini, Nahdah.. And this is a purely jurisprudential issue, the subject of detailed discussion by the specialized seminaries, and the lessons of “external research”, which work to study every evidence and prove it or deny it, and on that builds Each jurist has his own jurisprudence, but what matters is the social and political effects of that theory, which are effects that some see as having a “negative” result, especially on the “Arab Shiites.” Shiites, while the reality is not.
Mr. Muhammad Husayn Fadlallah
clash of ideas
It was a struggle over the role of religious scholars between Khomeini’s own vision and the vision of the Shiite classics, in which senior jurists stood without changing their opinions, most notably Ayatollah Abu al-Qasim al-Khoei, Ayatollah Muhammad Kazem Sharia Madari and Sayyid Hassan al-Qummi, and others.
This does not mean that Khomeini had no followers. Rather, there was a generation of mujtahids who supported him in that, including: Sheikh Mortada Motahari, Sayyid Muhammad Baqir Al-Sadr, and Sheikh Hussein Ali Montazeri; Mr. Muhammad Husayn Fadlallah; Although the last three personalities had changes in their intellectual and political vision, some of them withdrew from the partisan political scene, such as the late reference Muhammad Baqir al-Sadr who left the Dawa Party, and another wrote a critique of Khomeinist vision of Wilayat al-Faqih, such as Ayatollah Montazeri, who was Khomeini’s successor, before He is being removed from office!
A personality like Ayatollah Muhammad Hussein Fadlallah, and because of his social and political experience and his cultural openness, developed his view of the “guardianship of the jurist”, which he initially supported, and amended some details in the last years of his life, as he realized the danger of having “absolute power” in the hands of a person. One, because in this there is a push towards “tyranny” and forcing people to do what they cannot stand. Especially that Fadlallah was calling for the “wise reference”, and he believed that the “human state” is the public space in which all citizens can live, regardless of their sects and religions, and they have the right to practice their different faiths freely and without any compulsion.
There are those who believe in the “general guardianship of the jurist”, such as Sayyid Muhammad al-Husseini al-Shirazi, but his early disagreements with Ayatollah Khomeni made him go to put forward the theory of a “jurists’ consultation”, looking at it in more than one book, and making the matter vulnerable to a council that includes a group of The jurists, in which the rulings are approved by consultation, so that there is no singularity of opinion!
Sheikh Muhammad Mahdi Shams Al-Din
Perhaps one of the most critical visions that offered an alternative to “guardianship of the jurist” is the theory of “guardianship of the nation over itself,” which was put forward by the late scholar Sheikh Muhammad Mahdi Shams al-Din, a prominent Lebanese jurist and intellectual whose deep critical and political experience pushed him to believe more. The role of the people in establishing the system of government, and that guardianship in any system is for the people and not for the jurist.
The current guide, Ayatollah Ali Khamenei, followed the path of Ayatollah Khomeini in believing in and consolidating the general velayat-e faqih, and with him was a group of jurists of the “Qom” seminary, such as Sheikh Nasser Makarim Shirazi and Sheikh Jawadi Amoli, and its strength increased by the growing role of the “Revolutionary Guard” institution. And also external arms and parties that believe in it, such as: Hezbollah Lebanon, Asa’ib Ahl al-Haq, Hezbollah al-Hijaz, and other combative-ideological formations that owe hearing and obedience to the “guardian al-faqih” as the deputy of the infallible Imam.
This historical background is important to understand scientifically in a calm manner away from the sentiments of support or opposition, because the objective understanding of ideas, especially those that affected the Arab Gulf region deeply, this understanding is a key key to solving the problems left by them, and addressing their social, security and political effects.
Young supporters of the Wilayat al-Faqih movement
A large number of Shiite Muslim youth in the Gulf and the Arab world saw in “Wilayat al-Faqih” a lifeline, a formula that fulfills their individual and collective selves, and makes them feel strong, and the possibility of them having a prestige and influence, and therefore a number of them believed in it, and fewer groups went and joined the formations of God’s parties In the Gulf, especially in Saudi Arabia and Kuwait, it affected the kinetic youth in Bahrain as well, some of whom carried out terrorist operations that harmed civil peace, and others trained in the Revolutionary Guard camps in Iran and Lebanon. Rather, the influence of “Guardianship of the Jurist” did not stop with Shiite Muslims, as its enemies from the Salafi activists, specifically the “Sururiyya” were affected by it. You can review the book of Dr. Ghazi Al-Qusaibi, “So that there is no sedition”, where he collected a number of sayings of the affected Sahwa clerics. With the ideas of Wilayat al-Faqih, as well as the alliance of groups of the “Muslim Brotherhood” with it, in more than one Arab country, the most prominent example is the relationship of the “Hamas” movement with the regime in Iran.
The report, which was published on January 5 by the Al Arabiya.net website, and titled “Saudis in Hezbollah Camps,” indicated that there were several reasons that led some Saudi youths to join the “Hezbollah Al-Hijaz” organization, and perhaps one of the most important of those reasons: hearing Obedience and emotional belief in the theory of the absolute guardianship of the jurist, and the impressionistic image formed in the minds of these young people of the founder of the revolution in Iran, Mr. Khomeni and his successor, the guide Ali Khamenei.
remove the magic
Dismantling this “sanctity aura” is the first way to “liberate from political Khomeinism,” that is, to get rid of the burdens of “the General Guardianship of the Jurist” and its religious obligations. Deconstruction, works to “disarm the magic”, according to the philosopher and sociologist Max Weber, and to show the deep “explosion” within the theory itself, and its inability to keep pace with the values of modernity, civic and liberalism, but rather push it towards more radicalism and the consolidation of the outdated authority of the clergy.
Through these precise and serious treatments, which separate the religious and the political, and read the events within their historical contexts, their social developments, and the discourses they produced that have accumulated and become transformed as “the constant” that cannot be changed; Through this, a new independent awareness can be created. Otherwise, more young people will remain seeking these ideas, unable to transcend them, even if they do not necessarily fall into them or work with them at the present time, but they will remain valid ideas in their eyes, and applicable at any time. Paying attention to the “time bombs” hidden inside them, which can explode anywhere and at any time, causing many problems in Gulf societies, and here lies the danger of the ideas of “political Islam” of a certain and proven character, which you believe are the straight path, and accordingly The first steps are scientific criticism, free from sanctification and deaf obedience. History says that the violence produced by Islamist parties and currents had a great calamity even for their followers, on the day the revolution “eat its children”!