Hypothyroidism and Fertility
Hypothyroidism is characterized by an underactive thyroid gland. This leads to inadequate production of thyroid hormones. It disrupts the menstrual cycle, causes irregular periods and problems with conception due to anovulation.
Ovulation dysfunction can lead to female infertility. Furthermore, it can affect the endometrial lining, making it less receptive to implantation of a fertilized egg. It alters the levels of other reproductive hormones.
Hyperthyroidism and Fertility
Hyperthyroidism is characterized by an overactive thyroid gland. It produces more thyroid hormone.
It can cause disturbances in the menstrual cycle. Due to this, it changes the period and flow of menstruation, affecting the regularity of ovulation. Ovulation dysfunction can make it difficult for women to get pregnant. Moreover, it increases the risk of early term miscarriage and premature birth.
In men, hyperthyroidism causes a decrease in sperm count. This can lead to increased oxidative stress, affecting sperm motility and morphology.
Also read: Simple home remedy for thyroid problem
Adopting a balanced and nutrient-rich diet supports overall health and helps manage thyroid disorders. Make sure you focus on adequate intake of iodine, selenium and other essential nutrients.
At the same time, chronic stress increases the thyroid problem. Adding stress-reducing activities such as yoga, meditation or mindfulness can be beneficial.
Regular exercise not only lifts your mood but also promotes weight management and improves energy levels. For those with hypothyroidism, maintaining a healthy weight is critical, while individuals with hyperthyroidism should focus on preventing excessive weight loss.
Observe the menstrual cycle
When planning to conceive, you should monitor your menstrual cycles and identify fertile periods for the best chances of conception. You can opt for online tracking devices, which provide valuable insights into the menstrual cycle.
Regular checkups during pregnancy
After pregnancy is achieved, people with thyroid disorders should undergo regular check-ups to ensure that thyroid hormones remain in the optimal range. Additionally, it is necessary to consult your health care provider because thyroid medications may need to be adjusted to support the changing hormonal demands of pregnancy.
Thyroid hormone replacement therapy
In case of hypothyroidism, thyroid hormone replacement therapy is indicated. This involves replacing synthetic thyroid hormones, usually levothyroxine (T4).
Ensure proper dosage and get levels checked regularly with thyroid function tests. This helps in adjusting the level of medication as needed.
Also read: Eat these three foods to get rid of thyroid problem
For hyperthyroidism, anti-thyroid drugs like methimazole and propylthiouracil are prescribed. Prevents the thyroid gland from producing more hormones. Usually, it lasts for 12-18 months.
After that, the dosage can be gradually reduced or stopped if the symptoms go away and the blood test shows that the thyroid hormone level has returned to the normal range.
Beta blockers do not affect thyroid hormone levels. They may be prescribed to manage symptoms such as tremors, rapid heartbeat, and palpitations. However, in case of asthma, these medicines are not recommended.
Dr. Mahesh Koreghol
Fertility Consultant Nova IVF Fertility